EDITOR: ALLEN KATZ, K2UYH;
ENGR DEPT., TRENTON STATE COLLEGE,TRENTON, NJ 08650-4700 (Work 609-490-2817
OR Home 443- 3184,FAX 609-443-1713, Allen, K2UYH
PRODUCTION ASSISTANCE: TOM KIRK, KA2VAD, (908-521-2049)
SKEDS CORD & DIRECTORY: DL4EBY/DK0TU, KLAUS TIEDEMANN,
HALSKESTR.35, D-12167 BERLIN, (49-30-7955467), Klaus, DL4EBY/DK0TU.
*** NA EME BBS: 704-284-4854 ***
14.345 1500/1600 Z SAT/SUN;
NA NET: SCOTT, KD4LT AND JAY, K5JL;
EUR NET: K1RQG, JOE DEMASO, (207-469-3492).
EME STANDINGS: JIM STARKEY, W0KJY, 3845 CAPITOL DRIVE, FT. COLLINS, CO 80526, (303) 226-0669)
What a week and what a weekend! We could call this the 10368 or 1296 EME Newsletter based on activity on 3 and 23 cm during the SW. But the shoe was on the other foot during the pre- SW. the Ceuta dxpedition running on EME 3 bands simultaneous - see the EA9 report, and attention focused on 70 and 23 cm. Many stations reported little sleep for this period. I had at most 3.5 hours of sleep during a 4 day period from the EA9 start to when I left for VE3ONT on Tuesday. During the SW activity seemed split between 23 and 3 cm. Excellent conditions were reported despite the apogee moon. On 1296 QSO counts similar to a contest weekend were achieved. I expect that the Sept SW will be a good one too with many stations checking out their equipment in preparation for the 1st part of the ARRL EME Contest in Oct.
I4BER 32 M DISH EME TESTS:
Goliardo (I4BER) announces that during the Oct EME Contest weekend (7 and 8 Oct) he will be active on 23 cm with a 32 m dish and 200 w. The call sign is likely to be "special" (probably IY4FUM) as the test is being conducted in conjunction with the Marconi 1st Centenary Celebrations. The purpose is to give contestants with modest gear a chance to QSO via the Moon. The location of the antenna is near Bologna, very near to the place where Marconi made his 1st experiments. Goliar- do hopes also to operate on 10 GHz, but this will difficult and is not definite.
CN2EME - MOROCCO 95:
After having organized several successful EME expeditions (1989 4U1TU in Geneva, 1991 T70A in San Marino and 1992 CS1EME in Portugal) the Yota Sawe EME Group is on the road again. The next expedition will lead them to Africa, as they have decided to be active from Morocco. In order to reach the greatest number of stations, their operation will be centered on the 1995 international ARRL EME competition (4 & 5 Nov). Opera- tion should start on 3 Nov and stop on 6 Nov. The callsign they asked for is CN2EME, but this callsign has not yet been con- firmed. Equipment will be 8 x 11 .5 wl yagis open wire fed on a self supporting tripod; TS85OS converter 28-432, 4CX250R driver and TH327 coaxial cavity PA; 2-stage preamp and low noise high dynamic range 432-28 converter (.32 dB total NF), TS850S and digital signal processor; HB automatic AZ-El moon tracking inter- face with 80386DX33 computer and associated software. From the experience gained in previous expeditions they know they can work small stations (2 yagis and 1 KW or 4 yagis and 500 w). So sta- tions with no elevation should call on their moonrise or moonset. The team's core is still the same with F5JBP and F6HYE. And this time their friend F6IRF will join the team. QSLs will again be managed by F6BGC. The exact position of the station is not known, but should be very close to Rabat. The frequency to used will be around 432.023, depending on possible local interference. Contact F6HYE at Patrick MAGNIN, Marcorens, 74140 BALLAISON, FRANCE, tel ++(33) 50 94 19 14, E-mail firstname.lastname@example.org, AX25 f6hye@hb9iap, or their QSL Manager F6BGC at Noel CHENAVARD, 74160 BOSSEY, FRANCE.
EA9 DXPEDITION RESULTS:
The Ceuta dxpedition was a great success, although everything did not run as smoothly as hoped. The syn- chronizing of transmissions, particularly between 2 and 70 cm appears to have worked well. On 432 25 stations were QSO'd as follows DL9KR, K1FO, KD4LT, G0RUZ, K5JL, N4GJV, SM2CEW, OE9XXI, G3SEK, HB9SV, EA2LU, K2UYH, UR5LX, IW5AVM, OK1KIR, PA3CSG, WA4NJP, ON6KNG, W0KJY, W7FN, F2TU, DF3RU, DL9NDD, IK2EAD and DF6NA. Partials were achieved with IK0EQJ and DK3FB - no final Rs. On 23 cm they had preamp and pointing problems but still worked 10 stations: OZ4MM, OE9XXI, EA6/DF5JJ, OE9ERC, AA6WI, AA4TJ, HB9BBD, KB2AH, F2TU and OK1KIR. And a partial with K2UYH.
The VE3ONT 10 GHz team consisted of VE3ASO, who organized the 3 cm effort, VA3LK, W9IP, VA3MW, VE3LMK, VE3UXZ, VE2/SM0DFP, myself and my XYL. We all gathered Thursday night at Pembroke, ONT just outside Algonquin Park, in which the big dish is located. The ride into the park was an experience as the dish is in the wilderness and to reach requires traveling over 80 miles of dirt road. We left Pembroke just after 0500 LT and arrived at the dish site about 0830 LT. It took much longer to setup than expected. We completed the installation of the gear only about 1 hour before moon rise (2330 LT = 0430). I was in the feed cabin (really a can of about 8' dia and 15' long) of the dish for more than 12 hours continuously. Getting to the feed is quite a climb. You do not want to leave if you don't have to. You also must be prepared for an amusement park like ride, as the dish must be pointed straight up for access to the feed, but tilted over to the horizon to allow equipment to be hauled up. Because of the late hour, there was no time to check the receiver on Sun noise before leaving the feed cabin. As it turned out our preamps were not working properly. We also had tracking problems the 1st night. On the 19th echoes were easily copied, but much weaker than expected, when we were on the moon. We tried to maintain our planned schedule, but everyone was discouraged by the weak signals, and very tired after working all day and trying to operate all night. The moon tracking crew gave up about 1100 and the rest of us shortly there after. The only signals heard the 1st night besides are own echoes were those of SM4DHN and WA7CJO. After a few hours sleep we went back to the dish. We found we had less than 4 dB of Sun noise! Backup preamps I had bought with me were installed. These seemed to work much better. We verified their performance on Sun noise (> 16 dB). To overcome the tracking problem, I mounted my Sony Camcorder at the dish feed. Visibility was excellent and we could fill a monitor screen in the control room with the disk of the Sun (through a welding mask), but the camcorder would automatically turn off after about 10 minutes! This was a built in feature and I was unable to disable it... so much for that idea. We fell back on using 2 operators for tracking. One would read the moon coordinates from W9IP's real track program on a laptop computer and the other would set them on the dish controls. This had to be done continu- ously to keep the dish on the moon and was quite fatiguing, but enabled us to track the moon reasonably well. (Near the end of our moon window on the 20th a means was found to make the dish track automatically.) The final system consisted of the big dish fed with a conventional hor pol feed horn designed by VA3LK. The horn was connected through a waveguide switch to a FET preamp with a 1.5 dB NF. This was follower by 3 additional FET gain stages and about 15' of coax to an SSB transverter. The trans- verter fed a 28 MHz booster amp to several 100' of coax and eventually to 2 receivers in the control room. A DAT tape record- er and chart recorder were using to keep track of signal levels. We also had a computer for DSP display of spectrum provided by W9IP. On TX the horn fed a 2nd waveguide switch and 15' of ellip- tical waveguide to an isolator and my 100 w TWTA. The TWTA was on at all times, but terminated when in the RX mode. We began opera- tion on the 20th just as soon as the Moon enter the dish's window and were rewarded with excellent echoes. Moon noise was also now very audible and could have been used as an adjunct to the track- ing program. We QSO'd at 0700 DJ7FJ followed by OH2AXH, DL0SHF, WB5LUA, WA7CJO, PA3CSG, SM4DHN, F6KSX, partial VE7CLD, WA5VJB, OK1KIR, GM4ISM, G4KGC, GM4ZKE and finally VE7CLD. VE7CLD had a chirp which made his signal quite distinctive. Nil was heard on skeds with EA2BK, G4FUF and WA3RMX. If nothing was heard within 15 min, we would respond to non-sked stations. We kept going almost until moonset trying to work as many stations as possible. Our echoes were very strong, but the signals received were not stronger than theory predicted, thus the big dish did not offer the advantage we had hoped for. Reports seems to confirm this conclusion, as WA7CJO was running about 6-7 dB more TX power than us, but with a 16' dish. We made no SSB QSOs as we wanted to concentrate on working new stations. We did listen to our SSB echoes which were excellent and could have easily worked the stronger stations on SSB. We were primarily listening near where we heard our own echoes, but also tuned a wide range on either side (>+/-30 KHz) so I do not think calling off frequency was a problem. One anomaly observed was the reception of multiple echoes of our signal. Time did not permit a systematic look at these signals, but they were observed on a number of occasions and were believed to be present at all times. These additional echoes had the same time delay as the main echo but were located approximately 4 KHz above and below the main echo. They were weaker in strength than the main echoes. The difference was estimated to be 10 to 15 dB lower, but this was not accurately measured. The high side echo was stronger than the low side echo. Similar characteristics were found on no other signals. The frequency stability of the 2nd and 3rd echoes were the same as the main echo. It is possible these anomalies could have been created within the receiving converter at VE3ONT. The receive converter was located in the feed cabin and the temperature of the equipment in this area was very hot. This may have caused the local oscillator to break into some form of multimode. But the frequency stability of the spurious signals suggests this was not the case. Observations of the direct signal on a separate 3 cm receiver in the control room provided by VE2/SM0DFP showed that there were spurious signals at +/- 4 KHz from the main carrier! But these signals were somewhere between -30 to -50 dB down from the main signal. It could be that these signals were the source of the weaker echoes heard above and below the main echoes from the moon. One critical value that we were not able to establish, was the relative level of the spurious, as the calibration of the IC275 S-meter is totally unknown. From experience Per, VE2/SM0DFP estimates the level of the direct spurs to be about 40 dB down. If you observed any anomalies on the signal of VE3ONT, please send them to Larry Kayser, VA3LK /WA3ZIA Larry is particularly interested in audio or video recordings of any anomalies. [The NL would also like to know about your observations.] Hopefully VE3ONT can be induced to try 3 cm again.
Hoppie reports on his Aug 1296 activity -- I worked on 07 Aug W2UHI, on 13 Aug EA6/DF5JJ, W2UHI, KB2AH, W2UHI (2nd QSO), KB2AH (2nd QSO) and VE6TA - also heard were W7GBI and WB5LUA, on 14 Aug EA3UM/9 for initial #92 and DXCC 24, on 19 Aug DD1XF #93, CWNR AA4TJ, GW3XYW, ZS6AXT, OE9XXI (SSB), EA6/DF5JJ, KB2AH (SSB), W2UHI, HB9BHU, IK3COJ, W7GBI, W0RAP and OZ4MM, and on 20 Aug ZS6AXT, KB2AH (SSB), GW3XYW, EA6/DF5JJ, DJ9YW, OZ4MM (SSB), SM3AKW, EA3UM, WA4OFS, CWNR W7GBI, DL6YDH, WD5AGO (SSB), W2UHI, partial DL0SHF - not complete as they were only working SSB and KB2AH (SSB - 2nd QSO) - others heard were IK3COJ, F2TU and W0RAP. Condx were excellent both mornings with lots of activity. I kept the YL-1050 PA throttled down to around 900 w for the weekend as it didn't seem increasing the power would make a lot of differ- ence. No PA problems (yet)! I wont be QRV for the Sept SW as Cher and I are going to Portland. We plan to visit N7ART during our stay. However, I'll be QRV for the Oct EME contest weekend.
Chris, DF9CY reports on DL0SHF 10 GHz activity -- The 1st was made by Per, DK7LJ with DJ7FJ some days ago. On 19 Aug we wanted to do the skeds, but for some reason the transverter stopped transmitting. After the fault was found, it was too late for the moon. On 20 Aug I was at the site at 0700 and immediately heard VE3ONT. I was disappointed that the signal was not much stronger than our own echoes. I monitored the signal for a while and found the optimum pol close to vertical as predicted. Immense fading from more than 20 dB out of the noise to not audible was observed. The tone varied from very clean to a spread very aurora like quality. Our own signal sounds always aurora like. DL0SHF worked at 0750 VE3ONT (449/559), 0857 F6KSX (449/429) - a on CQ and 0958 PA3CSG (M/O). Heard were SM4DHN (very strong), WA7CJO (big sig), G4FUF and OH2AXH. I had to leave at 1100. DL0SHF uses a 6 m solid dish and a 20 w TWTA. The complete transverter is mounted at the feedpoint. I feel that many QSOs can be made on 10 GHz random. Where is the random frequency? [10368.010??]
Joe sends a chronology of his efforts to work VE3ONT on 10 GHz -- Friday 18 Aug from 1900 LT to Saturday 19th 0300 LT at- tending a wedding and trying to keep as sober as the circum- stances allow. Saturday at 0830 LT get up, 0900 to 0930 LT drive to the EME location on the roof of the QRL, 25 km from home. There meet Greg, DL2GSG. 0930 to 1030 LT move 4.5 m Andrew dish from stored position laying on its face, mount feed, connect up auxiliary equipment. 1030 to 1100 LT check moon noise and check echoes. 1100 to 1130 work at getting mount to operate at lower than 10 deg to west. 1130 LT to moonset waiting for the big signal from VE3ONT. 1530 to 1630 LT removing all equipment and lay down the dish for storage. 1630 to 1700 LT drive home. 1740 LT on 20 m for EME net. 1750 thunderstorm and lose power after lightning. 1800 LT ready for EME net with battery-powered rig in flashlight illuminated stack, 1815 got a sked for Sunday, 1830 LT contact with Greg on 70 cm repeater and persuading him to get up next morning at 6 o'clock, 20 Aug 0600 LT get up, 0630 to 0700 drive to EME location and meet Greg, 0700 to 0830 moving up dish etc. - see Saturday, 0830 LT ready and hear own echoes with lots of smear because of near culmination, 0835 LT receiving VE3ONT calling, trying to get them, but only QRZ, 0990 LT (0700) sked is OK and both sides exchange (O/O). VE3ONT's signal is only in for short periods of about a max length of 30 sec when they were stronger than our own echoes, at most other times they are weak- er. Our rig was 50 w to a 4.,5 m dish. 1000 LT finish EME activi- ty, 1000 to 1100 remove equipment and place dish back in storage position, 1145 LT back home to the family. Score is now up to initial #25, 15 countries, 19 grid squares and 5 states.
Frank worked on 23 cm in May ZS6AXT, KB2AH, EA6/DF5JJ, WD5AGO, OZ4MM and DJ9YW, and in June EA6/DF5JJ, DL0SHF on SSB, DL9EBL on SSB, OE9ERC on SSB, OE9XXI on SSB, ZS6AXT, KB2AH, HB9SV and G3LTF. Nil was heard in skeds with VE4MA and W0KJY (moon in trees), (T) from AA4TJ, CWNR IK3GHY and OK1CA was heard very weak. Frank was also on for the 1 July SW and found conditions very good, but no one on to work. He made only one QSO with KB2AH.
Jorge, EA2LU writes on 3 cm EME -- We heard nil during our VE3ONT on 20 Aug. We started copying VE3ONT at 0840 with very good signal. Perhaps we made a mistake calling VE3ONT on your echo QRG. I think the main trouble was bad conditions during our sked. We heard both SM4DHN and WA7CJO calling VE3ONT at the same time (O) and copied VE3ONT's reply with very good quality. Later we heard VE3ONT on SSB. The strongest station heard during the morning was WA7CJO (peaked S-4 on the S-meter, some times VE3ONT was S-3.) EA2BK plans to be more active on 3 cm in the future.
Peter has been very busy this summer. He QSO on 1296 in June DL9EBL, IK3COJ, DD1XF, ZS6AXT, KB2AH, EA3UM, AA4TJ, DJ9YW, W2UHI, OK1CA for an initial #75, OE9ERC, OZ4MM, OE9XXI, W7GBI, DL0SHF, IK3GHY #76, G3LTF, VE3BQN #77, WA4NJP, AA6WI, K2UYH, DD1XF, DF9QX #78, HB9SV, KD5RO, G3LQR, WD5AGO, W0RAP and VE4MA, and in July AA6WI, KB2AH, K2UYH, HB9BBD, F1ANH, W2UHI, IK3COJ, OK1CA, OK1KIR, OZ4MM, HB9SV, DF3RU, SM3AKW, partial VE6TA and VE4MA. On 13 cm he QSO'd on 20 June at 0450 IK6EIW (539/O) for 1st EA6-I 2300 QSO, on 24 June at 0800 OZ4MM (M/O) for 1st EA6-OZ QSO, 1200 VE4MA (M/M) for 1st EA6-VE4 contact and 1230 WB5LUA (O/M) for 1st EA6-W QSO and to bring him to initial #7. Peter is always interested in skeds and can be reached at tel/FAX ++34-71-534498.
Ian reports that things were very quiet on 432 during the Aug SW -- On the July SW I worked JA4BLC (449/449), nil from JH4JLB, G0RUZ (559/559) and JR9NWC (O/O) for an initial #. The only QSO in Aug was ED9UHF (O/O) #, but during the Aug SW I put out several CQs with no reply and heard nobody at all. Regarding US states wanted on 432 EME, there have been relatively few replies, so I've had to make some judgments from past reports and the 432 EME stations list. This is difficult because some sta- tions may only be capable of working the very big guns, or may only ever have expressed a passing interest, and I don't want to hurt anybody's feelings. How time flies - there hasn't been a major EME Dxpedition to any new US state since 1989, KL7WE/7 in WY. Also, several states have only been activated by mini-expedi- tions that worked just a handful of people. The 'last few' states which have not been activated in a significant way for maybe ten years or more are: AR, KY, NE, NM, NV, RI and SC. Then comes a group of states that have been activated occasionally by home stations or by major Dxpeditions in the past 10 years but aren't currently featured on the EME stations list: HI and VT are typi- cal examples. Finally there's a third, much larger group of states with stations who are on the list and potentially active but are either hard-to-find or hard-to-work. Some of these might benefit from the kind of expedition that visits an existing station and gives it a major upgrade for a few days. One thing is for sure: there's plenty of scope for new expeditions! But if you can't go there with a real EME station (at least 4 long yagis and a real KW of RF), capable of staying on for some days and working a lot of people, then maybe it's better to leave that state on the wanted list.
Goliardo reports -- Last Sunday I listen in on the VE3ONT Tests on 10 GHz using my contest 1 m dish. I was surprised to be able to receive the Canadian signal reasonably well, but better still were SM4DHN and WA7CJO. As I said earlier too large anten- nas never make better QSOs via Moon. You only get better sounding signals!
Fumiaki reports on his 10 GHz experiences during the VE3ONT tests -- I spent a beautiful weekend on 19/20 Aug partici- pating in the X-band EME tests. I was disappointed to hear nil from VE3ONT on the 19th, but at 1725 I found a characteristic signal with Doppler smear on 10368.107 "O O O --73 73" for only one period (1.5 min). The signal was (339-439) and easy to find and tune in. I understood intuitively that it is not VE3ONT, but another big gun. Back in July when I visited Charlie, G3WDG, he said a 1 m dish is enough to copy WA7CJO. I remembered his words. I called Jim to confirm that the signal was from AZ. This was my 1st coherent signal reception after I made the 10 GHz equipment last year. On 20 Aug VE3ONT came through at 1636 "CQ CQ VE3ONT" with a very clear tone on 10368.103, report (339-439). I copied them on and off for more than an hour with signal strength vary- ing from (T-O) copy. At 1749 on .1060 I found another signal and was very surprised to read the callsign "JA0IXX"!. Oh my god, what's going on? But soon I knew it was Jim's test transmission. The tone was the same, but strength was a little bit weaker than yesterday. WA7CJO was copied until after 1800. The line-up here is as follows: 1 m dish, f/d 0.35, temporally setup in my back- yard, scalar feed designed by W2IMU, aiming was by naked eye with the help of a HB optical sight, tracking was done by armstrong force by myself; RX is FHX13/2SK1844 and WDG002 receiver with NF of 0.9 dB - Tsys is around 110 deg K giving 7 dB of Sun noise, 0.3 dB of moon noise; TX is WDG003.006 and JA0DFR's HPA (+32 dBm), but unfortunately 10368 is outside the legal band in JA, so I didn't transmit this time. It was lucky the WX was fine on both days - no wind and nothing in the sky except the moon and stars. Special thanks to VE3ONT, WA7CJO and G3WDG/G4KGC for their good hospitality on 8 July while I was in UK on business, JA0BZC who tuned the LO to the precise frequency on the day before the tests, and JA4BLC, JH3EAO, JH3ERQ, JR4BRS for their valuable information. By the way, I moved to a new QTH last spring and am presently QRT on 432 EME. My new address is (1349-18, kotobuki- toyooka, matsumoto, nagano 399 Japan, Tel:+263-57-2343, Fumiaki, JA0IXX
Yoshiro reports on his group 10 GHz effort -- We listen for VE3ONT during there 3 cm tests. Our group consisted of JA4BLC, JA4CMZ, JR4AEP, JR4BRS, JH3EAO and JH3ERQ. Several local hams also kindly helped with the preparations. The equipment was temporally setup in a vacant lot in front of Toshi's house (JR4BRS) that is 30 km east of JA4BLC and has clear window to the east. We managed to install the 2.4 m solid dish, 3 m TVRO dish and 75 cm broadcasting Satellite offset dish (solid) before the weekend. JH3ERQ and JH3EAO drove 200 km from Kobe-city with a 1.2 m solid dish and receiver. Our preamps were G3WDG-004s of FHX13, FHX15, 2SK1844 with NF around 1 dB. The feeds were of 20 mm dia. brass tubing with a VE4MA scalar ring. The noise of sun/ moon/ ground/ to cold sky were measured at 10/ 0.8/ and 2.6 dB respec- tively for the 4 m solid dish; 4/ -/ and 2 dB for the 3 m TVRO dish; 6/ 0.3/ 3.5 dB for the 1.2 m solid dish, and 2.5/ -/ - dB for the 75 cm BS offset dish. We were disappointed with the results of 3 m TVRO dish on 10 GHz which had wasted a lot of our labor and decided to take it down. On 19 Aug at 1525 we could see the moon above the hilltop and pushed the dish to catch the moon armstrongly by 4 persons according to the moon noise indicator (28 MHz PANFI). Unfortunately we could not find any signals and JH3ERQ called K1RQG for the news by telephone. Joe informed us that VE3ONT had a RX problem and was not QRV on Saturday. We then stopped the operation and took some sleep at 1800 (0300 local time). After some sleep, JH3ERQ called Jim, WA7CJO, who kindly promised to transmit on 10 GHz tomorrow at 1800. On 19 Aug, JH3EAO and JH3ERQ went back home. At 1636, we heard VE3ONT call- ing CQ and testing their echo on 10,368.100. The signal was (549) when the dish was peaked on the moon. At 1742, we found WA7CJO on the same frequency as VE3ONT. Jim was (539-549) and sounded a bit broader in spectrum than VE3ONT. He was sending "VVV VVV DE WA7CJO TESTING WITH JA4BLC AND JA0IXX". He was lost around 1805. We were very much satisfied our results and celebrated with champagne at 1830, which JH3ERQ had left. After a few hours sleep, the equipment was disassembled and our summer nightmare (Hi) was finished. We thank VE3ONT crew and Jim WA7CJO for giving us much excitement.
Kimio writes: I heard ED9UHF many times but no QSO. Big antenna stations were working him during our limited window. I regret not having proposed a sked. Meanwhile I had a QSO with IK5WJD for initial #248 on 12 Aug. As to HEMT availability, only FHX35LG, FHX05LG and FHX06LG are sold in surplus stores for around US$4 each. Those who are interested in FHX13LP, pse con- tact JE1AAH (Toshihiko Takamizawa 3-27-1 Nokano-shima, Tama-ku, Kawasaki-city 214 Japan. TEL +81-44-932-2688). He likes orders of more than 100 pcs at a time.
Here is NEC HJFET (same as HEMT) NF vs f data:
FREQ/NF : 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 NE32684A: 0.30 0.32 0.37 0.41 0.46 0.50 0.55 0.75 0.91 NE32584C: 0.29 0.30 0.33 0.36 0.40 0.45 0.54 0.68 0.85
The 32684A has long 4 mm leads and is available $7 each from JE1AAH. The 32584C has 1.7 mm leads. Price is not available.
Steve found 70 cm EME activity "disharteningly" low over the Aug SW. His own echoes were very strong especially given the predicted path loss. Stations worked in Aug were on 10 Aug KA0RYT (O/O) for initial #472 - (Steve had worked KA0RYT during the 1994 EME contest, however KA0RYT was operating portable from EN35 at that time), on 12 Aug ED9UHF (O/O) #473 & EME DXCC 73, on 13 Aug ED9UHF, on 19 Aug IK0EQJ (O/O) #474, G3HUL, DL6NAA, VK2DND and JA5OVU, and on 20 Aug G3HUL, DK8VS and IK1MTZ. Steve's contact with KA0RYT was an expensive one. During the QSO the power supply to his video camera on the array failed putting 40 volts on the camera and burning it up. In addition to replacing the camera, Steve has several other array fix up projects do take care of before the cold weather arrives. His elevation pot needs to be replaced, his prop-pitch azimuth rotor is turning very slow and needs attention, some of his flex lines need replacing and he needs to repair or replace the couplings between the polarity shaft and the rotor. 70 cm EME totals for K1FO are now #474 initial, 49 states and 73 DXCC.
Jukka (OH6DD) writes -- We used the new 6.4 m dish for the 1st time last weekend during the VE3ONT Tests. The steering system is not complete yet and we had problems tracking the moon. On Saturday nothing was heard. On Sunday we made a visual track- ing device from a 1" aluminum tube and the aiming worked FB - great luck, the weather was clear! On Sunday morning (local time) VE3ONT was worked, but the signal was not as good as expected and had deep slow fading. On some periods nothing was heard. Later on Sunday afternoon VE3ONT was stronger and more stable. Also worked were SM4DHN and WA7CJO. Both were very loud (SNR in order of 15 dB) and the signal strengths were stable (unlike with VE3ONT). Compared to VE3ONT, SM4DHN and WA7CJO had both spread signals. VE3ONT was cleaner. At best VE3ONT was stronger than these two. Our own echoes were weaker and the tone was spread. The rig was built especially for this weekend and were finished on Friday! You should have seen the 13 w (Phase 3 Oscar D X-band prototype) SSPA mounted at the focus!! This must have been the 1st 10 GHz EME QSO with solid state power. Due to under illumination of the dish by the TVSAT feed our effective dish size actually was smaller than 6.4 m. Rx NF was on the order of 2 dB. VE3ONT was worked for the 1st 10 GHz EME from Finland! Heard were DL0SHF, WB5LUA and F6KSX. OH3LWP reported hearing VE3ONT well (529) with a 1.8 m TVSAT dish (NF 2 dB), but no TX was tried with only 200 mw. Does anyone know any smaller station coping VE3ONT? [See JA0IXX's report.]
Peter has expanded his array from 4 to 8 yagis and is now QRV with 8 x 11 wl OPT BV yagis using 6 mm al tubing for phasing lines and his old YL1050 final at 1 KW. He was active during the July SW. but only QSO'd K1FO, JA9BOH, GW3XYW and N4GJV. No re- sponses were received to his CQs on 29/30 July.
Stig writes -- With a long hot summer here, it got even hotter when working the EA9 expedition. They did a great effort, thank you guys. The 10 m dish in the garden now has 2 jobs. Beside EME, it is great to lay down under and take a sunbathe without being too hot because of the mesh, hi. Mostly it is the XYL, Ghita who uses the dish this last way. On 1296 I worked on 11 Aug OE9XXI (SSB) and EA6/DF5JJ, on 12 Aug EA9/EA3UM for ini- tial #93 and DXCC 26 - heard were OE9XXI, JA4BLC, DF9QX and DF3RU, on 19 Aug KB2AH (SSB), W2UHI, W7GBI, AA6WI and WA4OFS - heard were EA6/DF5JJ and IK3COJ, and on 20 Aug KB2AH (SSB), DJ9YW, AA6WI (SSB), EA6/DF5JJ (SSB) and IK3COJ - heard were GW3XYW, K3EAV, DF9QX, ZS6AXT, SM3AKW and KB3PD. I plan to be on 2304 or 2320 for the 16 Sept SW. Skeds are welcome. Also I should be ready with 2424 RX for this weekend. I will be on 1296 on the l7th.
Marko writes on his 3 cm effort -- I planned to be QRV on 19 and 20 Aug for the VE3ONT event, but bad weather (rain) pre- vented any activity on 20th. On the 19th moonrise at my QTH was about 0000, but it was raining until about 0400, when S53WW and S51WI came and we set up the rig. I had skeds with OK1KIR and GM4ISM, but no QSO. We couldn't hear them at all. I don't know why - my Moon noise was OK. I could hear only WA7CJO, SM4DHN and VE3ONT. I heard my own echoes (weak) in the beginning (0500), but after 0900 no more echoes were heard. (Moon noise was still about 1.5 dB and the power meter showed 50 w). Signals from other stations also got weaker with time. I managed to record some signals for analysis. The picture shows signals from WA7CJO and VE3ONT, when they were transmitting simultaneously around 0700 - [see at end of NL]. The peak value of the VE3ONT signal is about 2 dB over WA7CJO. (May be 0 dB, since I haven't yet compensated for the IF filter shape). Considering the 100/300 w power ratio, the equivalent dish size for VE3ONT is about 10 m. That agrees quite well with the predictions I made at the EME conference in Sweden about the critical dish size for 10 GHz EME. As expected, the VE3ONT signal was also less dispersed in frequency. I think there is another fundamental limit for small station EME: the transmitting station must produce, at the Moon surface, a power flux (watts/square m) that is higher than the thermal emission of the Moon in a given bandwidth. That means, there is a minimum ERP that is required to produce a usable S/N, regardless of the receiving performance. My 1st rough estimate is about 30 KW ERP, that is about 1.3 w with a 1.8 m dish for 10 GHz, 200 deg K Moon, 100 Hz BW and 7% reflectivity.
Simon's radio club is interested in EME activity on 23 cm. They are QRV on 1296.080 EME every SW with a 3 m dish, linear pol and 150 w PA. Simon can be reached at (S. Pogorelcnik, KIVI Computers d.o.o, Kidriceva 3a, 62380-SLO, tel +386 602 43 251, FAX +386 602 41 119,S59DCD
Peter reports -- On 12 Aug, I worked DL3BWW (449/449) on 432 and on 1296 OE9XXI (579/559) and (597/45) on SSB and DF9QX (O/O) for initial #37. ED9UHF was heard merely (T-M). On 13 Aug I called ED9UHF and believe they replied to me and sent (O). As I was not sure who they was replying and I stopped the operation. EA3UM/9 was not heard during the dxpedition. I did work ED9VHF on 2 m.
Willie reports QSOs on 4 June at 0200 W9QXP (O/O) for initial #261, on 3 and 4 June several stations heard, on 25 June nil on CQs from 1355 to 1418, on 22 July partial WG3I - no re- sponse no matter what pol sent and G3LQR (O/O) vert Pol. Willie wants to remind new stations not to transmit during the last 30 seconds of your 2 1/2 minutes sked period if you have heard nothing. Willie also agrees with DL9CY's comments on the MFJ-784 Tunable DSP Filter - the best CW moonbounce audio filter, minimum non-ringing, he has seen for the money. Willie will be in Maine on vacation and working on K1RQG's dish in Aug, so no skeds. He will be QRV again for the Sept SW.
Frank enjoyed the Aug SW -- Conditions were pretty good considering we were 11 days from perigee. Stations worked on 1296 were EA6/DF5JJ (439/439), OE9XXI (Q5-S6 SSB/559), AA6WI (549/539), KB2AH (589/559), W7GBI (549/549), GW3XYW (549/449) for initial #45, HB9BHU (449/439), IK3COJ (O/O) #46 and OZ4MM (569/549). I am working on a 5.1 m dish. I hope to have it in operation before winter. Stations now call me that I cannot copy ... boy is that frustrating!
Jim writes: I thought you may be interested in my X-Band log from the last SW. I worked on 19 Aug at 0820 SM4DHN (55N/549) - 8 m dish & 400 w, 0905 WA5VJB (O/569) - 10' dish & 50 w, 0950 WA3RMX (O/O) - 10' dish & 200 w for initial #30, 1015 G4FUF (M/O) - 4' .27 f/d dish & 75 w #31, 1100 F6KSX (O/O) - 3.3 m dish & 30 w and 1110 G3WDG (449/559) 10' dish & 50 w, and on 20 Aug at 0925 VE3ONT (O/569) - 150' dish & 100 w #32, 1005 OH2AXH (O/O) - 4.5 m dish (expanded to 6.4 m) & 13 w solid state PA (for AMSAT Phase 3D) #33, 1027 WB5LUA (O/O) - 4.8 m dish & 25 w. Stations heard were PA3CSG, OK1KIR, GM4ISM, G4KGC, GM4ZKE and VE7CLD. Stations reporting hearing me were JA0IXX (1 m dish) and JA4BLC (2.5 m dish). I 1st heard the VE3ONT signal at approximately 0800 on the 19th calling CQ. It soon became apparent that moon tracking was a problem as repeated calls from both myself and others were not heard and the ONT signal would disappear for long periods. The ONT signal on the 20th was more stable but only occasionally as strong and even more infrequently stronger than my own echoes. Phase distortion was noticeably lower on the ONT signal. I would like to take this opportunity to thank you and all the other participants in the VE3ONT operation for the tremendous effort it took to bring this event to fruition. I can personally identify with some of the problems and disappointments you experienced as I have been down the same path. Indeed, it sometimes seems that I live on that road! You can credit your effort as having encour- aged an unprecedented number of existing, new, and hopefully soon to be X-Band EME stations to operation. In my opinion, the VE3ONT operation was tremendous. [TNX Jim.]
Dave E-mails -- After having 6 attempts with JA9BOH, I have had to give up as the JA window is blocked by a flourishing tree. I have not yet taken down my EME array as moving looks non-immi- nent. Maintaining the array is taking it's toll. I got 1st degree burns on the tip of my nose repairing it before my last JA9BOH sked. Equipment is now changed to the TS850 + new Down East transverter on 432. The transverter on its own has a 0.8 dB NF, so I have now removed the masthead 2nd stage. Does anyone have a design for a 1500 w 432 MHz low pass filter to protect my 1296 RX? Nice to meet NC1I and W7CI for the 1st time at the local VHF conference in Vernon, CT, where NC1I described how he built his array, including the 4 crane hiring!
I am pleased to report that K2UYH is QRV again on both 432 and 1296. I had some problems, but the old 7650 PA is again putting out about 1 KW. The UPX-4 seems to be working too, al- though it is still occasionally blowing fuses. I had hoped to try to catch EA3UM/9 on 23 cm on the 13 or 14 and then switch to 432. But a transmitter failure while talking to KB2AH on 23 cm off the moon on SSB forced me to switch to 432 on the 14th. This was fortunate as I was able to QSO on 14 Aug at 0430 HP3XUG (M/O) for initial #561 and DXCC 75 and at 0600 ED9UHF (O/O) #562 and DXCC 76. I then changed feeds and was back on 1296 by 0700 where I copied EA3UM/9 with VE4MA, but he disappeared before Barry could complete a QSO and was not heard again that night. This left me with one more shot on the 15th as I was leaving the next day for VE3ONT and could be QRV on the 16th. I was on early talking to OE9XXI and WD5AGO, but EA3UM/9 was not around. He then showed up, but was working skeds. I replied to several of his CQs and final- ly got a reply only to have him disappear again. I gave up about 0800 and stowed the dish for the 1st time in 4 days, only to be awaken by KB2AH about 0930 to tell me he had just QSO'd them. It took me almost 30 minutes to become operational, by that time EA3UM had disappeared again. That's the excitement and frustra- tion of EME. I gave it a good try and truly appreciate the EA9 group's efforts.
SM0PYP has changed QTH and is not QRV. Paul hopes to move his equipment and become operational again in the future. He is particularly interested in trying 10 and 24 GHz EME.
AA4TJ wants no skeds in Sept, He may be on random but is still has problems with aiming. Bill was listening on 10 GHz during the SW and heard WA7CJO. He was copying 11.8 dB of Sun noise.
W2UHI has been working on his 23 cm station and is now getting much better echoes. He added initials with GW3XYW and IK3COJ during the SW.
HP3XUG is looking for 70 cm skeds. W4HHK was not QRV for the Aug SW because of a hamfest.
WA4OFS added an initial on 23 cm with EA6/DF5JJ. G4FUF is QRV on 10 GHz.
WB5LUA on 3 cm worked VE3ONT and heard WA7CJO with very good signals. Al's totals on 10 GHz are now up to initial #4, DXCC 4 and WAS 1.
W0RAP QSO'd W7GBI on 23 cm.
NU7Z is temporarily off 23 cm due to a broken EL motor.
KB2AH found condx good on 23 cm during the SW. He completed 33 QSOs with 23 different stations!
PA3CSG worked on 10 GHz VE3ONT and DL0SHF. Gert will be active on 10 GHz again in Oct.
WA3RMX is QRV on 3 cm with an 8' dish, 300 w PA and 3 dB NF LNA. SM4DHN worked on 3 cm G4FUF, OH2AXH, WB5LUA, VE3ONT and WA5VJB - all initials to bring him to #29.
HB9BBD worked on 23 cm EA9/EA3UM for an initial and W2UHI, KB2AH and EA6/DF5JJ during the Aug SW.
WB4BKC has his 432 array back up and will be QRV for the Sept SW. K4TAX, Bob (260 S.E. 9th St. Pompano Beach, FL 33060, (EL96), tel (305) 943-4347, WB4BKC is assisting WB4BKC get on 70 cm EME and may be interested in becoming QRV himself.
N2IQU is working on completing his "BIG" new 42' dish. He hopes to be QRV with it in 2 weeks.
K3HZO, Harry is now QRV on 432 with 1500 w and a 8 x 25 el yagis w/pol rotation. He has worked KD4LT and others as well.
KN6DD should be QRV again on 23 cm by the contest.
IK0EQJ is now QRV on 70 cm.
UR4LL has a new address (A. Gavva, pL. Lenina, 8, Zolochev, Kharkov obl., 312220, Ukraine; tel ++(057-64-9-25-21).
NF7P is QRV on 70 cm with 4 x FO24 yagis and 100 w from DM09. Address is (Larry E Gillespie, 5060 Bobolink Cr, Reno, NV 89506. Tel 702-972-7245.).
WD8ISK (EM79vh), tel 703-754-1347 was QRV on 432, but elevation rotor failed. He wants no skeds, but hopes to be on random on .010 in Sept.
F5FLN, Michele will be QRV on 70 on 16/17 Sept with 400 w PA, 8 x 26el yagis and Autotrak from IN94sr. I5TDJ will be QRV for the Sept SW. DL2CJ is QRT on EME.
KB2AH is producing VE4MA like 1296 feeds with built-in IMU type circular polarizer. Feeds are 24" long overall with five tuning slugs for pol. Tom is getting 22 dB sun noise with his feed. He is looking for 40-60 ohm 100-150 w non inductive resistors (carbon). He has for sale 23 cm cavity PAs using 2 x 7289s, 4 x 7289s, 6 x 7289s and TH328s. Amps are available complete and tested, but without tubes. Call Tom Dinyovszky at 908-223-5067 after 2100 for detailed info.
K2UYH is looking good 7289s and 7650s. He is still interested in a 12' or larger dish good for use on 10 GHz EME.
UR4LL has 2 m 1.5 KW PAs available using GS35B tubes. The finals require a 2.5- 3.5 KV plate supply and 40-80 w of drive. They may be purchased through Rainer, DF6NA (R. Allraun, Trautenauer Str 12, Wuezburg, 97074 Germany, tel 0931-86315). Rainer is able to answer all questions about the PAs.
W4HHK is looking for a 90 deg hybrid for 13 cm. His is old one is bad.
WG3I still has G3WDG004 10 GHz HEMT preamps with box and compre- hensive build instructions, all you need supply is RF connectors and dc feedthough. US$80. Also the following PA cavities (with out tubes): DJ5JP 2304 MHz 2C39 PA US$105, G4PMK 1296 MHz 2C39A PA US$75, YD1060 3456 MHz cavity US$55; plus Sivers Labs 4 port 18 GHz transfer relays, SMA conns US$30. All prices shipped in US. Contact Dave at 914-365-7914 days, 201-796-1612 evenings.
K1FO has ordered all of the parts for the next production run of
Lunar-Link 70 cm amplifiers. If his vendors hold to their prom-
ised delivery dates shipments for the new run of amplifiers will
start the 2nd week of Oct. There will be a slight price increase
due to the increased cost of parts. If anyone needs a 70 cm
amplifier for the ARRL EME contest he now has the last 2 units
from the 1st production run available for sale. The 1st unit is
one that he held on to display at the local VHF/UHF conferences
over the summer. The other unit is one that he could not finish
assembling due to a missing sheet metal part. The missing part is
scheduled to arrive next week allowing him to complete the ampli-
FINAL: W1ZX has announced that The '96 International EME Conference is scheduled for the 3rd weekend in Aug. Willie promises more information for the next NL. It is not too early to start making your travel plans to be in Baltimore this summer.
Alexi, UR4LL reports that he has had to postpone his meeting of former Soviet area EMEer because of local complications, but hopes to be reschedule the conference for next year.
G3SEK has completed his survey of the most needed US states and has come up with the following list: AR, KY, NE, NM, NV, RI and SC - see Ian's report for more details.
WB5LUA wants to know your opinion on if it is important to keep EME distance records? Al would keep EME distance records along with the other records he maintains for QST. Al and I both think this is a good idea, but others have questioned the significance of EME distance records when most of the distance is to the moon and back! I have certainly found it is harder to work stations on the other side of the Earth via EME because of window and timing limitation. The greater signal path through the atmosphere also affects signal strength and quality.
A lot of the EME gang will be at Weinheim, Germany in Sept. I wish I could be there too.
If your in our region at the end of Sept, you should consider attending the excellent Mid-Atlantic VHF Conference and Hamarama in Warrington, PA on 30 Sept/1 Oct.
Please keep the reports and tech info coming. I plan to be active
Sept SW and during coming EME contest in Oct.
73, Al - K2UYH
In EME we know in advance that the signal is a (say) 500 Hz tone
buried in noise. We wish to detect its presence or nonpresence.
Is there a Morse code dit or dah being sent at this moment?
The best filter for detecting the presence of a known signal in
white noise is a `matched filter,' where the received noisy
signal is played against an uncorrupted version of itself---much
as an ideal local carrier is inserted for detecting SSB. The
incoming noisy signal is convolved with say m=8 periods of a
local clean 500 Hz signal. The improvement in signal-to-noise is
a function of the receiver's noise structure. More on this
IMPLEMENTATION: Thanks to Texas Instruments one can easily and
cheaply implement a matched filter. TI sells a $99 complete DSP
board, the TMS320C5X DSP Starter Kit, referred to as the "DSK."
The board is powered by any 9 VAC wall transformer @250 ma, has a
serial DB9 port, and two RCA audio in/out plugs. The levels at
the analog ports are such that the DSK can be plugged directly
between receiver audio output and headphones.
The board comes with two manuals, one a short overview, the other
a 3 pound reference. The software is supplied on 3.5" media and
runs on any MSDOS machine. TI ships a simple assembler, a loader,
a powerful debugger, and several instructive tested routines.
You may write assembly source routines using any ASCII editor and
file as file.ASM. Invoke the assembler to produce strings of hex
which the assembler stores as file.DSK. Once the DSK board is
powered up with 9 VAC and once connected to the serial port, the
loader will load and initiate execution of your routine. You may
then unplug the serial cable. The DSK board will run standalone
The DSK's onboard processor (TMS320C5X) is a 28.6 MIPS screamer
with an 32 bit arithmetic logic unit, 32 bit accumulators, and a
16 bit address and data bus. The `Harvard' architecture has
separate program and data memory. The assembly code uses 1--4
letter intuitive mnemonics, some of enormous power. The DSP chip
was built to do convolutions with a vengeance. A simple matched
filter requires only a tiny fraction of the capacity of the
The onboard analog interface circuit (AIC) does 14 bit A/D and
D/A conversion at programmable rates from 7.2--19.2 kHz. It also
provides anti-aliasing switched capacitor filters with programma-
ble cutoff frequencies.
HARDWARE RECOMMENDATIONS: Upon receiving your DSK board, immedi-
ately mount the board with conductive spacers to a metallic base,
say plate aluminum or G10 PC board. This will ward off static and
mechanical damage. If speaker level volume is needed, use an
outboard amplifier like the $8 TenTek kit 1550.
Your nearest supplier of the DSK board can be obtained by calling
TI at 800-477-8924. TI maintains a DSP BBS at 713-274-2323.
SOFTWARE: I have written a simple matched filter routine called MATCH.ASM. Once assembled and loaded, it initializes the DSK to sample at 8 kS/s (8 kHz) and uses m = 8 periods of cosine for an improvement in S/N of 14 dB. The values of cosine are stored in tabular form in a separate file called COSINE.ASM. The assembler will include this table during assembly. I have posted MATCH.ASM and COSINE.ASM on the ARRL BBS and will ship via Email upon request.
***************************************************************** The above are highlights of an article of the same name that appeared in the 1995 Proceedings of the Central States VHF Soc. *****************************************************************UNRESOLVED QUESTIONS:
This flies in the face of theory -- in the presence of white noise, a matched filter centered at 500 Hz has 3 dB less noise reduction that one centered at 250 Hz. [Is this because you are averaging for twice the period for a fixed number of cycles?]
After finally deciding that this conflict is not a mathematical artifact of causal sampling, I found that the "thermal" noise from the preamp+receiver is FLICKER not white noise; the data shows clear 1/f dependence on frequency, and this is NOT from the sampling process.
Is the noise from all amateur receivers flicker noise? References claim modern devices have "noise corners," (where flicker noise changes to white), that are far below the audio frequencies where we listen to CW. But are the many semiconduc- tors, multiple conversions and preamps of our systems combining to produce flicker noise well past 2.1 kHz?
SEND DATA: Can you digitally record one second of galactic noise from your system? If so please ship me the data. I'll check its 1/f dependence. If we are dealing with predominately flicker noise at audio there may be a more optimal noise reduction strategy.
Skeds for SEP 16 : Time 432.040 | 432.045 | 1296.050 | 2304.100 | 10368.100 | 0000z IN3KLQ-JA2JRJ | 0030z IN3KLQ-JA9BOH | | | OZ4MM -JH3EAO | 0100z IN3KLQ-JR9NWC | | | OZ4MM -JA4BLC | 0130z IN3KLQ-JA4BLC | 0200z IN3KLQ-JA5OVU | 0530z K9BCT -UR5LX | 0630z | EA3DXU-IK0EQJ | | LX1DB -OZ4MM | 0700z | PY5ZBU-ZS6AXT | | EA3UM -OZ4MM | WB5LUA-EA2BK | 0730z K9BCT -ZS6AXT | IN3KLQ-W1ZX | | OZ4MM -F2TU | WB5LUA-OK1KIR | 0800z I5MPK -IN3KLQ | EA3DXU-DK3FB | KB3PD -OZ4MM | | WB5LUA-DL0SHF | 0830z K1VYU -DL9KR | IN3KLQ-K2UYH | | | WB5LUA-GM4ISM | 0900z WB4BKC-K2UYH | HP3XUG-W1ZX | | | WB5LUA-OE9ERC | 0930z K3HZO -K2UYH | | | | WB5LUA-PA3CSG | 1000z | IK0EQJ-W1ZX | | | WB5LUA-G4YGF | 1030z W7FN -IK0EQJ | PY5ZBU-IW5AVM | | | WB5LUA-DJ7FJ | 1100z K3HZO -W1ZX | W0KJY -IW5AVM | | | WB5LUA-G4FUF | 1200z W7TVF -KD4LT | 1230z K3HZO -W9QXP | HP3XUG-WA4NJP | 1400z K1FO -WB4BKC | HP3XUG-W0KJY | 1430z KD4LT -WB4BKC | 1500z JA2JRJ-WB2VVV | 1530z JA5OVU-WB2VVV | 1600z JR9NWC-WB2VVV | | JA4BLC-W2UHI | 1630z JA4BLC-WB2VVV | 1700z JA9BOH-WB2VVV | VK5MC -W9QXP | Skeds for SEP 17: Time 1296.050 | 1296.075 | 1296.100 | 10368.100 | 0800z | VE1ZJ -ZS6AXT | | WB5LUA-F6KSX | 0830z VE6TA -HB9BHU | | K9BCT -OZ4MM | 0900z EA6/DF-KB3PD | NU7Z -F1ANH | VE3BQN-OZ4MM | 0930z NU7Z -DL0SHF | | W0KJY -EA3DXU | WA3RMX-PA3CSG | 1000z NU7Z -EA3UM | EA6/DF-W0KJY | 1030z NU7Z -LA8LF | N7ART -OZ4MM | W0KJY -HB9BBD | 1100z NU7Z -K2UYH | EA6/DF-N4MW | 1130z WB5LUA-DL0SHF | KD5RO -CX9BT | NU7Z -DL9EBL | 1200z | EA6/DF-NU7Z | 1230z W7GBI -CX9BT | 1330z WB5LUA-CX9BT | NU7Z -WA4NJP |
The Top of these Pages.
This information was obtained from Scott, KD4LT.
For your comments or corrections W6/PA0ZN