## [HSMS] HSMS Formules

Date: Tue, 4 Nov 1997 09:14:13 -0700 From: Alf Green, NU8I To: hsms@tree.net Subject: Re: [HSMS] HSMS formulas Andrew Flowers K0SMenscribed: Several of you have asked for the formulas, and replying to the reflector is easier than keeping track of all of you, so here they are. As always, check my math! The excel sheet has you enter the speed in LPM and the audio frequency you intend to inject into the transmitter. From this it calculates the following: (f = the audio frequency in Hz) WPM (speed in WPM) = LPM * 5 Actually, WPM = LPM/5 Typo, I expect, as it is correct on the spreadsheet. L (length of a dot) = 6/LPM Cycles/dot = L*f Corr (How 'good' the tone is) = sin(2pi*f*L) Corr is a number between -1 and 1. The closer to zero the better the tone is and the less 'pop' there is after each CW element. It is really a measure of how close to zero the sine wave is at the end of the element. A 'one' would mean the element is stopping at the crest of the wave, a '-1' would mean the element is stopping at the trough--both are going to cause 'popping'. The sheet also calculates 'perfect tones' for the speed that you entered. The perfect tones (in Hz) are any multiple of 1/(2*L). Strictly speaking this only works if you can synchronize the audio to have the zero-crossings at the keying edges. Even at the perfect tones, there will still be 'pops' if there is a phase error. Perhaps with the soundcard generators, this can be achieved, but I would think it rather difficult with an external keyed oscillator. The principle is quite sound, however. 73, Alf NU8I Scottsdale AZ DM43an 50 - 1296

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Comments: Rein, W6/PA0ZN

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